A review of the previous evolving structure of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) illustrated with official files. Some files are updated versions listing internal Agency changes and reorganization. Additionally, those leaders and departments serving prior and during the King and Kennedy cases are included with additional information.
"The Director of Central Intelligence is the head of the Central Intelligence Agency and is responsible for proper performance of the Agency's functions. In the performance of his duties, the Director shall exercise all powers inherent in the head of a department or agency of the Government...the Director is charged with carrying out of such specific statutory functions as are set forth in appropriate legislation."
Roscoe Henry Hillenkoetter (May 1, 1947- October 1950) Hillenkoetter previously served during WWII as the Assistant Naval Attaché to France and was an Intelligence Officer serving under Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. He was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1946, and was appointed by President Harry Truman to lead the recently created Central Intelligence Agency in 1947.
Walter Bedell Smith (October 7, 1950-February 9, 1953): Smith was a veteran of both World Wars and instructed at the US Army School. He later served in the War Department; he was appointed Soviet ambassador, and eventually Director of Central Intelligence in 1953.
Allen Welsh Dulles (February 23, 1953-November 29, 1961): Dulles was a former Office of Strategic Services veteran and perceptive businessperson. He led the Directorate of Operations and subsequently rose to Director of Central Intelligence. Dulles was appointed to the President's Commission investigating the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He withheld critical information from official investigations to protect the clandestine operations of the Agency.
John Alex McCone (November 29, 1961-April 28, 1965): McCone graduated from Berkeley College with an engineering degree. He worked for years in the steel industry as a riveter, boilermaker, and eventually manager. McCone became a millionaire after becoming President of the Joshua Hendy Corporation. He was appointed to the Air Policy Commission, Special Deputy to the Secretary of Defense, and Under Secretary of the Air Force. McCone led the Atomic Energy Commission and sought a nuclear testing ban during his tenure. Subsequent to the Bay of Pigs debacle, President Kennedy appointed McCone the Agency's DCI.
William Francis Raborn, Jr. (April 28, 1965-June 30, 1966): Raborn served during WWII "in Washington and at sea." An official stated of Raborn, "Mr. Raborn, trained in the military hierarchy, worked to satisfy President Johnson's demands the agency provide more intelligence and run clandestine operations in the (Vietnam) war." President Johnson sought to expand the Vietnam War and this possibly influenced his selection of Raborn.
Richard McGarrah Helms (June 30, 1966-February 2, 1973): Richard Helms used Agency employees to hire criminal assassins for possible use in removing enemy world leaders. Helms prior authorized utilizing Cuban exile leaders to murder Fidel Castro. Cuban exiles alleged Castro was responsible for President John F. Kennedy's assassination, and the Central Intelligence Agency funded hundreds of Cuban exiles. Helms prior authorized multiple reprehensible operations and held among the most questionable of tenures as Deputy Director for Plans. The American Senate later convicted him of perjury during a subsequent investigation.
Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) Walter Bedell Smith divided the Central Intelligence Agency into Deputy Directorates. He appointed Deputy Directors, assigned each duties, and then projects related to their area of purview. Smith tasked all Deputy Directors with leading their respective hierarchy to serve the Agency's interests. The related Deputy Directorates were created in the following order: Administration, Plans, Intelligence, and Science and Technology.
The first Deputy Director of Administration (DDA) was appointed December 1, 1950. "The Deputy Director is responsible for overall support of all intelligence, operational, and related activities." The title changed to Deputy Director of Support (DDS) February 3, 1955. This division was responsible for organizational administration, review, and support of the Agency's operations.
Murray McConnel (December 1, 1950-March 30, 1951): "McConnel was a businessman brought in by DCI Walter Bedell Smith and his DDCI, William Jackson, first as CIA Executive, 16 October 1950, and then appointed as first Deputy Director of Administration on 1 December 1950. Remaining only until the spring of 1951, he left CIA to return to private business."
Walter Reid Wolf (April 1, 1951-June 30, 1953): Wolf joined the Agency in 1951 from the private business sector. He quickly was appointed as the Deputy Director of Administration. After his time in the Central Intelligence Agency, he resumed his prior business ventures.
Lawrence Kermit White (Acting DDA July 1, 1953-May 21, 1954) (DDA/DDS May 21, 1954-July 5, 1965): White began his studies at West Point Academy July 1, 1929. After graduation, he joined the US Army. He served repeatedly in the Pacific during WWII. He was discharged after being seriously wounded. White aided Allen Dulles in selecting a new Agency Headquarters compound. He was instrumental in designing Agency retirement and training programs, and establishing disability benefits.
Robert L. Bannerman (July 5, 1965-December 31, 1970): Robert L. Bannerman formerly worked at the State Department; he created the State Security Office "within the Office of the Chief Special Agent (CSA)". Bannerman prior additionally served as Deputy Director of the Office of Security and later became its Director. He subsequently was elevated to Deputy Director of Support.
Office of Security: "The Director of Security (DOS) is charged with the preparation of the Agency's security program and with the performance of security inspection functions..." Included among the responsibilities of the DOS was to "Obtain and evaluate through investigation, technical interrogation, and liaison contact with other United States agencies...Approve or Disapprove, from a security standpoint, the employment or utilization of individuals by the Agency, except certain approvals reserved for the Deputy Director (Plans)...Develop and conduct internal counterintelligence programs to detect and prevent hostile penetrations of the Agency through its employees...Furnish security advice and guidance to Agency employees."
Officials established the Deputy Director of Operations (DDO) title December 1, 1950. Its purview included the creation and execution of secret operations and the collection of foreign intelligence. The Deputy Director title was changed to Deputy Director for Plans (DDP). Officials rebrand the Directorate as the Directorate of Plans on August 1, 1952.
Allen W. Dulles (January 4, 1951-August 23, 1951): (see prior description under Director of Central Intelligence section)
Frank G. Wisner (August 23, 1951-January 1, 1959): A veteran of the Office of Strategic Service (OSS), Wisner created a new group referred to as the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC). Wisner's OPC was soon competing with another Agency group the Office of Special Operations. (OSO) Reorganization of the Agency occurred under the first Director of Central Intelligence Smith. Wisner undertook Agency Cold War operations and later was appointed Deputy Director.
Richard M. Bissell (January 1, 1959- February 17, 1962): Bissell served as assistant to Agency Director Dulles. He was the "principal architect" of the Bay of Pigs attack targeting Cuba. This failed attack overshadowed Bissell's contributions during WWII and in subsequent covert programs. Bissell "helped design and develop the specifications" of the famed U2 spy plane. He additionally participated in the conception of Agency assassination plots to remove Fidel Castro.
Richard M. Helms (February 17, 1962-April 28, 1965): (see prior description under Director of Central Intelligence section)
Desmond FitzGerald (June 1965-July 23, 1967): State Department official Frank Wisner recruited lawyer Desmond Fitzgerald for the Agency. He later served on the CIA Special Affairs Staff eventually meeting Rolando Cubela, a former Cuban official and possible double agent assassin and FitzGerald met with Johnny Rosselli, a high-ranking Mafia contact regarding Agency and Bureau interactions. Following his involvement in the Castro assassination plots, he was appointed Deputy Director of Plans by William F. Raborn, Jr.
Counter Intelligence Staff, Special Investigations Group (CI/SIG): The Special Investigations Group "Performs the CIA investigation of any known or potential security leak in the Clandestine Services organization, whether in headquarters or in the field, from the standpoint of its effect on (1) existing operations, and (2) the cover of personnel. In performing this function, maintains close working relations with the Security Office, the latter being primarily concerned in such cases from Agency security rather than an operational security standpoint."
JMWAVE (Richmond Naval Air Station): A secret Agency domestic station founded in 1961 and located at the South campus of the University of Miami. Officials from the JMWAVE station undertook repeated actions against Cuba. Multiple espionage actions used paramilitary mercenaries and Cuban exiles. JMWAVE developed repeated dangerous and unsanctioned plots for intelligence purposes against the Castro government.
CHIEF OF STATION (COS)
Robert Davis (October 1961-February 1962)
Theodore Shackley (April 1962-June 1965)
John Dimmer (June 1965-March 1967)
January 1, 1952, the Office of Deputy Director of Intelligence (DDI) was established. The DDI "is responsible for directing and coordinating the activities of the Offices of Central Reference, Research and Reports, National Estimates, Current Intelligence, Scientific Intelligence, Operations, and Basic Intelligence, and the Photographic Intelligence Center." The DDI is responsible for the organizing all gathered intelligence sources to support Agency operations.
Loftus E. Becker (January 1, 1952-April 30, 1953): "Becker, a lawyer who had served as a military adviser at the Nuremberg War Trials, was brought into CIA on 29 November 1951 by DDCI William Jackson. Before becoming CIA's first DDI he served a month as Assistant to the DCI and in the Office of the Deputy Director for Plans (the 1951-1973 title for the DDO). When Becker resigned in February 1953 he was replaced as DDI by Robert Amory, another Harvard-educated lawyer whom Becker had recruited into the Agency in 1952 with such a role in mind. On leaving CIA, Becker became a Washington partner of the law firm of Cahill, Gordon, Reindel & Ohl, and later served as a legal adviser to the Department of State, 1957-1959."
Robert Amory Jr.(May 1 1953-March 30, 1962): Armory served in WWII and graduated from Harvard Law School and the Milton Academy. He later served on the National Security Council Planning Board and was a critic of the Bay of Pigs operation. Notably Armory was not consulted about the operation "despite his status as an official of the C.I.A. and the National Security Council." After serving as Deputy Director, Amory joined the Harvard Board of Overseers. He additionally served as secretary and general counsel of the National Gallery of Art.
Ray S. Cline (April 23, 1962-January 17, 1966): "He was an archetype of the young men who joined the agency in its infancy: high school football captain, Harvard man, wartime operative in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the nation's chief intelligence agency in World War II." Cline joined the Agency and became "station chief in Taiwan from 1958-1962", then he was appointed to lead the Agency station in Bonn, Germany. After his retirement as Deputy Director of Intelligence, Cline "served as the head of the Taiwan Committee for a Free China."
R. Jack Smith (January 17, 1966-May 15, 1971): After earning a PhD in English Literature, Smith instructed at Williams College. He served in the OSS during WWII as a researcher. Smith was a member of the Agency Board of National Estimates that served the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI). He became Director of Current Intelligence and served closely with the prior Deputy Director of Intelligence. Richard Helms appointed Smith DDI in 1966.
Domestic Contacts Service (DCS): Its Director was required to "Develop, coordinate, and carry out policies and programs for the collection of foreign intelligence information from selected individuals and organizations within the United States as a service of common concern." Additionally, they were required to "Operate a network of field offices within the United States for purposes of intelligence collection, operational support, and other assigned missions." "Develop and coordinate programs for the collection and technical analysis of Soviet, Satellite, and other foreign materials for intelligence purposes and to implement certain of those programs." "Administer facilities in the United States for the reception, exploitation, rehabilitation, and resettlement of selected defectors and other foreign nationals."
The Office of Deputy Director of Research (DDR) is established February 19, 1962. Its first Deputy Director was replaced and the title is changed to Deputy Director of Science and Technology (DDS&T) August 5, 1963. The DDS&T was "responsible for conducting basic and applied research and development in the scientific community as well as all Government agencies on matter of science and technology in the intelligence as appropriate, and responsibility for furnishing technical planning, programming guidance, and support to other Agency components utilizing science and technology in support of their functions."
Herbert Scoville (February 19, 1962-June 15, 1963): Herbert Scoville "was born in New York City on March 16, 1915. He was educated at Phillips Andover Academy and graduated from Yale in 1937..." "Dr. Scoville received his PhD in physical chemistry from the University of Rochester in 1942." Scoville worked for the National Research Committee, Atomic Energy Commission, and for the Defense Department. Scoville opposed continued nuclear testing after his experience at Bikini Island atomic testing. He was "Assistant Director for Scientific Intelligence and as Deputy Director for Research at the CIA..."
Albert D. Wheelon (August 5, 1963-September 26, 1966): Dr. Wheelon, a physicist, assumed the title of Deputy Director at the age of 34. The Agency charged him with development and operation of "aerial surveillance systems, which the government considered a national imperative...He worked on developing and deploying spy planes like the U-2, the Lockheed A-12, and the SR71 Blackbird, and several generations of Corona reconnaissance satellites..." Additionally, he organized and implemented vital research and the development of digital satellite imaging.
Carl E. Duckett (Acting DDS&T: September 26, 1966-April 20, 1967) (DDS&T: April 20, 1967-June 1, 1976): Duckett served in the US Army with distinction, and later in 1963 joined the Agency. As DDS&T, he authorized the recovery of a lost Russian submarine with the aid of millionaire Howard Hughes. Duckett "was president and chairman of the board of Intec Inc., a company providing management services, system analysis, field support and performing conceptual studies in the fields of technical intelligence and electronic warfare."
Photographic Intelligence Center: "The Director of the Photographic Center is charged with producing photographic intelligence and providing photographic intelligence services in support of the Central Intelligence Agency and the intelligence community." The Center was required to "Produce photographic intelligence in support of Agency and national scientific, military, economic, and geographic intelligence objectives...Maintain a photographic intelligence facility manned and equipped to provide complete analytic and technical photographic intelligence services in support of special collection and exploitation requirements."
Central Intelligence Agency, The Work of a Nation, Center for Intelligence publications, cia.gov
Hearings of the United States Congress on Intelligence and Security, Letter from Director Webster to Senator Glenn, Congressional Research Service Reports, July 2, 1991, fas.org
The CIA under Harry Truman, Books and Monographs, Center for the Study of Intelligence, cia.gov
CIA, Library, Roscoe Henry Hillenkoetter, Center for the Study of Intelligence, cia.gov
Glenn Fowler, (February 16, 1991), John A. McCone, Head of C.I.A. In Cuban Missile Crisis, Dies at 89, New York Times, nytimes.com
Michael Wines, (March 13, 1990), William F. Raborn is Dead at 84; Led production of Polaris Missile, New York Times, nytimes.com
Jefferson Morely, (November 1, 2002) The Gentlemanly Planner of Assassinations, Slate Magazine, slate.com
CIA file, Miscellaneous CIA Series, List of documents describing the organization of the Directorate of Administration, (n.d.), Mary Ferrell Foundation (MFF)
The People of the CIA, Lawrence K. "Red" White: The Father of Integrated Support, Central Intelligence Agency, cia.gov
History of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security of the United States Department of State, Chapter 3, Robert L. Bannerman and the Cold War, 1945-1950, US Department of State, state.gov, p. 71
CIA file, Miscellaneous CIA Series, Documents describing the organization of the Directorate for Plans, (n.d.), pp. 1-5
CIA file, Misc. CIA Series, Extracts from CI History, MFF, (n.d.)
David Binder, (February 8, 1994), Richard M Bissell, 84, Is Dead; Helped Plan Bay of Pigs, New York Times, nytimes.com
HSCA, Seg. CIA file, Draft Material on Roselli Investigation, Box 38, April 7, 1977
CIA file, Miscellaneous CIA Series, List of documents describing the organization of the Directorate of Intelligence, (n.d.), MFF
Glenn Fowler, (April 21, 1989), Robert Amory Jr., 74, Ex-Official of the C.I.A. and U.S. Budget Bureau, New York times, nytimes.com
Tim Weiner, (March 16, 1996), Ray S. Cline, Chief of C.I.A. Analyst, Is Dead at 77, New York Times, nytimes.com
Russell Jack Smith, Giant of CIA Analysis, Dies at 95, (June 3, 2009), Central Intelligence Agency, cia.gov
CIA file, Miscellaneous CIA Series, Document list describing the Directorate of Science and Technology, (n.d.), MFF
Biography of Pete Scoville, The Herbert Scoville Jr. Peace Fellowship, scoville.org
Douglas Martin, (October 2, 2013), Albert D. Wheelon, Architect of Aerial Spying Dies at 84, New York Times, nytimes.com
Joan Marble, (April 2, 1992), Carl E. Duckett, 69, CIA Deputy Director, Daily Press, dailypress.com
Research by: C.A.A. Savastano